Bronnen - Foliumzuur

Foliumzuur - België:

  • Samyn, E, H Bastiaens, A De Sutter, and P Van Royen. "Preconceptieadvies. Gevalideerd Door Cebam Onder Het Nummer 2008/01." Huisarts Nu 37, no. 5 (2008).
  • Samyn, E. Opvolgrapport aanbeveling voor goede medische praktijkvoering preconceptie advies (2011).
  • HGR - Hoge Gezondheidsraad, 2011. Advies van de Hoge Gezondheidsraad nr. 8623. Foliumzuur Risk-Benefit Analyse. HGR, Brussel.
  • KCE 2004. Nationale richtlijn prenatale zorg: een basis voor een klinisch pad voor de opvolging van zwangerschappen. KCE Reports Vol 6A, KCE
  • KAGB, 2011. Advies betreffende het gebruik van foliumzuur voor de conceptie en tijdens de zwangerschap. KAGB. Brussel

Foliumzuur algemeen:

  • Folic acid for the prevention of neural  tube defects. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Genetics. Pediatrics. 1999;104:325-7. [PMID: 10429019]
  • Heseker HB, Mason JB, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH, Jacques PF. Not all cases of neural-tube defect can be prevented by increasing the intake of folic acid. Br J Nutr 2009;102:173 – 80.
  • Mayanil, C.S., Ichi, S., Farnell, B.-M., Boshnjaku, V., Tomita, T., McLone, D.G., 2011. Maternal intake of folic acid and neural crest stem cells, in: Litwack, G. (Ed.), Vitamins and Hormones: Stem Cell Regulators, 143-173.
  • Fekete, K., Berti, C., Cetin, I., Hermoso, M., Koletzko, B.V., Decsi, T., 2010. Perinatal folate supply: relevance in health outcome parameters. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 6, 23-38.
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Goh YI, Bollano E, Einarson TR, Koren G. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of congenital anomalies: a meta-analysis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 2006;28:680–9.
  • De-Regil LM, Fernandez-Gaxiola AC, Dowswell T, et al. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010:CD007950.
  • Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., Bower, C., 2001. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD001056.
  • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301.
  • Czeizel, A.E., Banhidy, F., 2011. Vitamin supply in pregnancy for prevention of congenital birth defects. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(3), 291-296.
  • Wilson, R., Davies, G., Désilts, V., Reid, G.J., Summers, A., Wyatt, P., Young, D., Genetics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), 2003. Guideline of the Genetics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. JOGC, 25, 959-973.
  • Wehby, G.L., Murray, J.C., 2010. Folic acid and orofacial clefts: a review of the evidence. Oral Diseases, 16(1), 11-19.
  • Johnson CY, Little J (2008). Folate intake, markers of folate status and oral clefts: is the evidence converging? Int J Epidemiol 37: 1041–1058.
  • Badovinac RL, Werler MM, Williams PL, Kelsey KT, Hayes C (2007). Folic acid-containing supplement consumption during pregnancy and risk for oral clefts: a meta-analysis. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 79: 8–15.
  • Czeizel AE, Dobo M, Vargha P (2004). Hungarian cohortcontrolled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation shows a reduction in certain congenital abnormalities. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 70: 853–861.
  • Lassi, Z.S., Salam, R.A., Haider, B.A., Bhutta, Z.A., 2013. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3.
  • Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic acid supplementation and the occurrence of congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, multiple births, and miscarriage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81:1213S–7S.
  • Li DK, Daling JR, Mueller BA, Hickik DE, Fantel AG, Weiss NS. Periconceptional multivitamin use in relation to the risk of congenital urinary tract anomalies. Epidemiology 1995;6(3):212–8.

Historiek :

  • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
  • Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., Bower, C., 2001. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD001056.
  • Hibbard BM (1964) The role of folic acid in pregnancy; with particular reference to anaemia, abruption and abortion. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 71, 529–542.
  • Laurence KM, James N, Miller MH, Tenant GB, Campbell H. Doubleblind randomized controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural tube defects. BMJ 1981;282:1509 – 11.
  • MRC Vitamin Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131 – 7.
  • Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327(26):1832–5.

Andere mogelijke effecten van foliumzuur:

  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Fekete, K., Berti, C., Trovato, M., Lohner, S., Dullemeijer, C., Souverein, O.W., Cetin, I., Decsi, T., 2012. Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. Nutrition Journal, 11(75), 1-8.
  • Rumbold, A., Middleton, P., Pan, N., Crowther, C.A., 2011. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1).
  • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301.
  • Haider, B.A., Bhutta, Z.A., 2012. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(11).
  • Lassi, Z.S., Salam, R.A., Haider, B.A., Bhutta, Z.A., 2013. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3.
  • Leathern AM, ed. Drug information reference, second edition. British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre;1984
  • Wilson, R., Davies, G., Désilts, V., Reid, G.J., Summers, A., Wyatt, P., Young, D., Genetics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), 2003. Guideline of the Genetics Committee and Executive and Council of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. JOGC, 25, 959-973
  • Iyer, R., Tomar, S.K., 2009. Folate: A Functional Food Constituent. Journal of Food Science, 74(9), R114-R132
  • Glynn SA, Albanes D. 1994. Folate and cancer: a review of the literature. Nutr Cancer 22:101–19.
  • Kennedy DA, Stern SJ, Matok I, et al. Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35:2–10
  • World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF⁄ AICR). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007
  • Clarke R, Halsey J, Lewington S, et al; B-Vitamin Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Effects of lowering homocysteine levels with B vitamins on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cause-specific mortality: meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials involving 37 485 individuals. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1622– 1631.
  • Wien TN, Pike E, Wisloff T, Staff A, Smeland S, Klemp M. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000653 Doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-005.
  • McNulty H, Scott JM. Intake and status of folate and related B-vitamins: considerations and challenges in achieving optimal status. Br J Nutr 2008;99:S48e54.
  • Ulrich C.M. & Potter J.D. (2006) Folate supplementation: too much of a good thing? Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 15, 189–193.
  • Miller ER, Juraschek S, Pastor-Barriuso R, Bazzano LA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis of folic acid supplementation trials on risk of cardiovascular disease and risk interaction with baseline homocysteine levels. Am J Cardiol 2010;106:517 – 27.
  • Wald DS, Law M,Morris JK. 2002.Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 325:1202–8. Verhoef P, StampferMJ, Rimm EB. 1998. Folate and coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 9:17–22.
  • Burdge, G.C., Lillycrop, K.A., 2012. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy: are there devils in the detail? British Journal of Nutrition, 108(11), 1924-1930.

Dosis

  • ACOG, AAP, AJOG, CDC, Domus Medica, Health Canada, KCE, NICE, WHO

Timing

  • Vanaf planning zwangerschap:

    • AAFP, AAP, AJOG Domus Medica, KCE, Health Canada, NICE (voor zwangerschap)
  • Minstens 4 weken voor de zwangerschap:
    • AJOG, CDC, Domus Medica, ICSI, RACGP, USPSTF, WHO
    • Calonge, N., Petitti, D.B., DeWitt, T.G., Dietrich, A.J., Gregory, K.D., Grossman, D., Isham, G., LeFevre, M.L., Leipzig, R.M., Marion, L.N., 2009. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 626-631.
    • Burdge, G.C., Lillycrop, K.A., 2012. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy: are there devils in the detail? British Journal of Nutrition, 108(11), 1924-1930.
    • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301.
    • Berghella, V., Buchanan, E., Pereira, L., Baxter, J.K., 2010. Preconception Care. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 65(2), 119-131.
  • Tot en met 12 weken na de conceptie:
    • AAP, ADIPS, AJOG, CDC, CMACE/RCOG, Domus Medica, Health Canada, NHG, NICE, RACGP, SIGN, USPSTF, WHO;
    • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
    • Burdge, G.C., Lillycrop, K.A., 2012. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy: are there devils in the detail? British Journal of Nutrition, 108(11), 1924-1930.
    • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301.
    • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
    • Czeizel, A.E., Dudas, I., Paput, L., Banhidy, F., 2011. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins? Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 58(4), 263-271.
  • Fekete, K., Berti, C., Cetin, I., Hermoso, M., Koletzko, B.V., Decsi, T., 2010. Perinatal folate supply: relevance in health outcome parameters. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 6, 23-38.
  • Taruscio, D., Carbone, P., Granata, O., Baldi, F., Mantovani, A., 2011. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects. Biofactors, 37(4), 280-284.
  • Czeizel, A.E., Dudas, I., Paput, L., Banhidy, F., 2011. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins? Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 58(4), 263-271.
  • Fekete, K., Berti, C., Trovato, M., Lohner, S., Dullemeijer, C., Souverein, O.W., Cetin, I., Decsi, T., 2012. Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. Nutrition Journal, 11(75), 1-8.
  • Hermoso, M., Vollhardt, C., Bergmann, K., Koletzko, B., 2011. Critical micronutrients in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: considerations on vitamin D, folic acid, and iron, and priorities for future research. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 59(1), 5-9.
  • Hovdenak, N., Haram, K., 2012. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 164(2), 127-132.
  • Charles DH, Ness AR, Campbell D, et al. (2005) Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 19 , 112–124

Vorm

  • AAFP, ACOG, CDC, IoM, KCE, Domus Medica, NHG, ICSI, NICE, RACGP, SAPPG, USPSTF, WHO (geen onderscheid naargelang foliumzuurvorm)
    De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010.
    Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
  • Smithells RW, Sheppard S, Schorah CJ. 1976. Vitamin deficiencies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child 51:944–950.
  • Czeizel, A.E., Banhidy, F., 2011. Vitamin supply in pregnancy for prevention of congenital birth defects. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(3), 291-296.
  • Czeizel, A.E., Dudas, I., Paput, L., Banhidy, F., 2011. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins? Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 58(4), 263-271.
  • Wang Z-P, Shang X-X, & Zhao Z-T (2012) Low maternal vitamin B12 is a risk factor for neural tube defects: a meta-analysis. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 25(4):389-394.
  • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301.
  • Czeizel, A.E., Banhidy, F., 2011. Vitamin supply in pregnancy for prevention of congenital birth defects. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(3), 291-296.
  • Krapels I.P., van Rooij I.A., Ocké M.C., van Cleef B.A., Kuijpers-Jagtman A.M. & Steegers-Theunissen R.P. (2004) Maternal dietary B vitamin intake, other than folate, and the association with orofacial cleft in the offspring. European Journal of Nutrition 43, 7–14.
  • Verkleij-Hagoort A.C., van Driel L.M., Lindemans J., Isaacs A., Steegers E.A., Helbing W.A., et al. (2008) Genetic and lifestyle factors related to the periconception vitamin B12 status and congenital heart defects: a Dutch case – control study. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 94, 112–119.
  • Rosenthal, J., et al. "Effect of different dosage and administration schedules of folic acid on blood folate levels in a population of Honduran women of reproductive age." Public health nutrition 11.8 (2008): 822-830.
  • Martinez-de Villareal L, Pérez JZ, Vázquez PA, Herrera RH, Campos M del R, López RA, et al.Decline of neural tube defects cases after a folic acid campaign in Nuevo León, México. Teratology  2002;66(5):249–56.
  • Norsworthy B, Skeaff CM, Adank C, Green TJ. Effects of once-a-week or daily folic acid supplementation on red blood cell folate concentrations in women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition  2004;58(3):548–54.

Type

  • EFSA 2009. ESCO report prepared by the EFSA Scientific Cooperation Working Group on Analysis of Risks and Benefits of Fortification of Food with Folic Acid
  • Blencowe, H., Cousens, S., Modell, B., Lawn, J., 2010. Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 110-121.
  • Imdad, A., Yakoob, M.Y., Bhutta, Z.A., 2011. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths. Bmc Public Health, 11.
  • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
  • Elkin AC, Higham J. Folic acid supplements are more effective than increased dietary folate intake in elevating serum folate levels. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2000;107:285-9
  • Holzgreve W: Adding folate to the pill to prevent neural tube defects. Gynaecol Forum 2010; 15: 4–8.
  • Wolff, T., Witkop, C.T., Miller, T., Syed, S.B., 2009. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Update of the Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 632-U614.

Bovengrens

  • EFSA 2006. TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS FOR VITAMINS AND MINERALS.
  • SCF – Scientific Committee on Food, 2000. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of folate. European Commission, Brussels.
  • National Academy of Sciences. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Folate, other B Vitamins and Choline. Wasington, D.C., National Academy Press.
  • Institute of Medicine. Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intake; Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
  • Strickland, K.C., Krupenko, N.I., Krupenko, S.A., 2013. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potentially adverse effects of folate. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 51(3), 607-616.
  • Berti, C., Biesalski, H.K., Gaertner, R., Lapillonne, A., Pietrzik, K., Poston, L., Redman, C., Koletzko, B., Cetin, I., 2011. Micronutrients in pregnancy: Current knowledge and unresolved questions. Clinical Nutrition, 30(6), 689-701.
  • Hellstrom L (1971) Lack of toxicity of folic acid given in pharmacological doses to healthy volunteers. Lancet i, 59–61.
  • Hunter R, Barnes J, Oakeley HF, et al. (1970) Toxicity of folic acid given in pharmacological doses to healthy volunteers. Lancet i, 61–63.
  • National Academy of Sciences. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes: Folate, other B Vitamins and Choline. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press
  • Strickland, K.C., Krupenko, N.I., Krupenko, S.A., 2013. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potentially adverse effects of folate. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 51(3), 607-616.
  • Fekete, K., Berti, C., Cetin, I., Hermoso, M., Koletzko, B.V., Decsi, T., 2010. Perinatal folate supply: relevance in health outcome parameters. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 6, 23-38.
  • Muggli, Evelyne E., and Jane L. Halliday. "Folic acid and risk of twinning: a systematic review of the recent literature, July 1994 to July 2006." Medical journal of Australia 186.5 (2007): 243.
  • Calonge, N., Petitti, D.B., DeWitt, T.G., Dietrich, A.J., Gregory, K.D., Grossman, D., Isham, G., LeFevre, M.L., Leipzig, R.M., Marion, L.N., 2009. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 626-631.
  • Vollset, Stein Emil, et al. "Effects of folic acid supplementation on overall and site-specific cancer incidence during the randomised trials: meta-analyses of data on 50 000 individuals." The Lancet 381.9871 (2013): 1029-1036.
     

Verhoogd risico - Dosis  & Timing

  • AAP, AAFP, ACOG, AJOG,  CDC, Domus Medica, Health Canada, ICSI, IOM
  • de Bree A, van Dusseldorp M, Brouwer IA, van het Hof KH, Steegers-Theunissen RPM. Folate intake in Europe: recommended, actual and desired intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:643–660.
  • Geisel J. Folic acid and neural tube defects in pregnancy. A review. J Perinat Neonat Nurs 2003;17:268–279
  • Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., Bower, C., 2001. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD001056.
  • Cetin, I., Berti, C., Calabrese, S., 2010. Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period. Human Reproduction Update, 16(1), 80-95.
  • Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85:285S–288S.
  • AAP, AJOG, CDC, CMACE/RCOG, Domus Medica, Health Canada, NHG, NICE, RACGP, USPSTF
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Dary O. Nutritional interpretation of folic acid interventions. Nutrition Reviews 2009;67(4):235–44.
  • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
     

Verhoogd risico - Vorm

  • ACOG, CDC, NICE
  • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
  • Oakley GP Jr, Erickson JD. Vitamin A and birth defects: continuing caution is needed. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1414–1415
  • Rothman KJ,Moore LL,Singer MR,Nguyen US, Mannino S,Milunsk y A. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1369–73. (Level III)
  • Stover PJ. Physiology of folate and vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutr Rev 2004;62:S3 – 12; discussion S3.
  • Cuskelly GJ, Mooney KM, Young IS. Folate and vitamin B12: friendly or enemy nutrients for the elderly. Proc Nutr Soc 2007;66:548e58.
  • Wright JD, Bialostosky K, Gunter EW, Carroll MD, Najjar MF, Bowman BA, et al. Blood folate and vitamin B12: United States, 1988-94. Vital Health Stat 11. 1998:1-78.
  • Mills JL, Von Kohorn I, Conley MR, et al. Low vitamin B-12 concentrations in patients without anemia: the effect of folic acid fortification of grain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1474–1477.
  • Wolff, T., Witkop, C.T., Miller, T., Syed, S.B., 2009. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Update of the Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 632-U614.
  • Wald NJ, Law MR, Morris JK, et al. Quantifying the effect of folic acid. Lancet. 2001;358:2069–2073.
     

Verhoogd risico - voorgeschiedenis (vroeger zwangerschap met NBD)

  • ACOG, AAFP, AAP, CDC, DOMUS MEDICA, Health Canada, ICSI, KCE, NHG, NICE, RACGP, USPSTF, WHO
  • de Bree A, van Dusseldorp M, Brouwer IA, van het Hof KH, Steegers-Theunissen RPM. Folate intake in Europe: recommended, actual and desired intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51:643–660.
  • Geisel J. Folic acid and neural tube defects in pregnancy. A review. J Perinat Neonat Nurs 2003;17:268–279
  • Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85:285S–288S
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Calonge, N., Petitti, D.B., DeWitt, T.G., Dietrich, A.J., Gregory, K.D., Grossman, D., Isham, G., LeFevre, M.L., Leipzig, R.M., Marion, L.N., 2009. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 626-631.
  • Wolff, T., Witkop, C.T., Miller, T., Syed, S.B., 2009. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Update of the Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 632-U614.
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Neural Tube Defects. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology Educational Bulletin 2003:44;754–64.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Chodirker BN, Cadrin C, Davies GAL, Summers AM, Wilson RD, Winsor EJT, et al. SOGC Genetics Committee Members, CCMG Prenatal Diagnosis Committee Members. Canadian guidelines for prenatal diagnosis. Genetic indications for prenatal diagnosis. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines, No 105, June 2001. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can 2001;23(6):525–31.
  • Van Allen MI, McCourt C, Lee NS. Preconception health: folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. A resource document for health professionals, 2002. Ottawa, Ontario Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
  • Grosse SD, Collins JS: Folic acid supplementation and neural-tube defect recurrence prevention. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2007; 79: 737–742.
  • Blencowe, H., Cousens, S., Modell, B., Lawn, J., 2010. Folic acid to reduce neonatal mortality from neural tube disorders. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39, 110-121.
  • Imdad, A., Yakoob, M.Y., Bhutta, Z.A., 2011. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths. Bmc Public Health, 11.
  • De-Regil, L.M., Fernandez-Gaxiola, A.C., Dowswell, T., Pena-Rosas, J.P., 2010. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10).
  • Blom, H.J., 2009. Folic Acid, Methylation and Neural Tube Closure in Humans. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85(4), 295-302.
  • Lumley, J., Watson, L., Watson, M., Bower, C., 2001. Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, CD001056.
  • Laurence KM, James N, Miller MH, Tennant GB, Campbell H: Double-blind randomised controlled trial of folate treatment before conception to prevent recurrence of neural-tube defects. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981, 282(6275):1509-1511.
  • MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338: 131–137.
     

Verhoogd risico - familiale geschiedenis

Voorgeschiedenis van een kind met een neuraalbuisdefect (NBD) bij vrouw of partner

  • NICE
  • BNF 63 (2012) British National Formulary. 63rd edn. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
  • MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338: 131–137.
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Hovdenak, N., Haram, K., 2012. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 164(2), 127-132.

Ouders (vrouw of partner) zelf getroffen door een NBD

  • NHG (vrouw)
  • NICE
  • Health Canada
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176

Familieleden van de 1e of 2e graad die getroffen zijn door een NBD

  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338: 131–137.
  • Main DN, Mennuti MT. Neural tube defects: issues in prenatal diagnosis and counselling. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:1-15.

Een zwangerschap met een NBD bij familieleden van de 1e (NICE) of 2e graad

  • NICE
  • DOMUS MEDICA
  • HEALTH CANADA
  • MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991; 338: 131–137.
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176"
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • SOGC Genetics Committee: The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines, No. 138, November 2003. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003; 25(11);960–5.
  • Van Allen MI, McCourt C, Lee NS. Preconception health: folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. A resource document for health professionals, 2002. Ottawa, Ontario Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176
  • Main DN, Mennuti MT. Neural tube defects: issues in prenatal diagnosis and counselling. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:1-15.

Verhoogd risico - anti-epileptica 

  • AJOG, DOMUS MEDICA, Health Canada, NHG, NICE, RACGP, SAPPG, SOCG, USPSTF, WHO
  • National Clinical Guideline Centre, 2012a. The epilepsies. The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care (full NICE guideline). Clinical Guideline 137. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
  • Chodirker BN, Cadrin C, Davies GAL, Summers AM, Wilson RD, Winsor EJT, et al. SOGC Genetics Committee Members, CCMG Prenatal Diagnosis Committee Members. Canadian guidelines for prenatal diagnosis. Genetic indications for prenatal diagnosis. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines, No 105, June 2001. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can 2001;23(6):525–31.
  • Van Allen MI, McCourt C, Lee NS. Preconception health: folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. A resource document for health professionals, 2002. Ottawa, Ontario Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
  • Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Neurology. 2003;61:S23-6.
  • Werler MM, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA. Prepregnant weight in relation to risk of occurrent neural tube defects. JAMA 1996;275:1089-92.
  • Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stowe Z, et al. Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:608-20.
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Hovdenak, N., Haram, K., 2012. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 164(2), 127-132.
  • Hiilesmaa VK, Teramo K, Granstrom M, Bardy AH. 1983. Serum folate concentrations during pregnancy in women with epilepsy: Relation to antiepileptic drug concentrations, number of seizures, and fetal outcome. Br Med J 287:577–579.
  • Lewis DP, Van Dyke DC, Willhite LA, Stumbo PJ, Berg MJ. 1995. Phenytoin–folic acid interaction. Ann Pharmacother 29:726–735.     
  • Linnebank M, Moskau S, Semmler A,Widman G, Stoffel-Wagner B, Weller M, Elger CE. 2011. Antiepileptic drugs interact with folate and vitamin B12 serum levels. Ann Neurol 69:352–359.       
  • Munoz-Garcia D, Del Ser T, Bermejo F, Sarabia-Garcia F. 1983. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in long-term anticonvulsant therapy. Mt Sinai J Med 50:517–521. 
  • Ogawa Y, Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y. 1991. Serum folic acid levels in epileptic mothers and their relationship to congenital malformations. Epilepsy Res 8:75–78. 
  • Dansky LV, Andermann E, Rosenblatt D, Sherwin AL, Andermann F. 1987. Anticonvulsants, folate levels, and pregnancy outcome: A prospective study. Ann Neurol 21:176–182.
  • Calonge, N., Petitti, D.B., DeWitt, T.G., Dietrich, A.J., Gregory, K.D., Grossman, D., Isham, G., LeFevre, M.L., Leipzig, R.M., Marion, L.N., 2009. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 626-631.
  • Blom, H.J., 2009. Folic Acid, Methylation and Neural Tube Closure in Humans. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85(4), 295-302.
  • Berghella, V., Buchanan, E., Pereira, L., Baxter, J.K., 2010. Preconception Care. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 65(2), 119-131.
  • Harden, Cynthia L., et al. "Management issues for women with epilepsy—Focus on pregnancy (an evidence‐based review): III. Vitamin K, folic acid, blood levels, and breast‐feeding." Epilepsia 50.5 (2009): 1247-1255.       
  • Blom, H.J., 2009. Folic Acid, Methylation and Neural Tube Closure in Humans. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85(4), 295-302.
  • Berghella, V., Buchanan, E., Pereira, L., Baxter, J.K., 2010. Preconception Care. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 65(2), 119-131.
  • Harden, Cynthia L., et al. "Management issues for women with epilepsy—Focus on pregnancy (an evidence‐based review): III. Vitamin K, folic acid, blood levels, and breast‐feeding." Epilepsia 50.5 (2009): 1247-1255.       
  • Munoz-Garcia D, Del Ser T, Bermejo F, Sarabia-Garcia F. 1983. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in long-term anticonvulsant therapy. Mt Sinai J Med 50:517–521.
  • Ogawa Y, Kaneko S, Otani K, Fukushima Y. 1991. Serum folic acid levels in epileptic mothers and their relationship to congenital malformations. Epilepsy Res 8:75–78.
  • Dansky LV, Andermann E, Rosenblatt D, Sherwin AL, Andermann F. 1987. Anticonvulsants, folate levels, and pregnancy outcome: A prospective study. Ann Neurol 21:176–182.
  • Meijer W, de Walle H, Kerstjens-Frederikse W S and de Jong-van den Berg L (2005). Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists. Reproductive Toxicology. 20: 203-207.
  • Kjaer D, Puho EH, Christensen J, Vestergaard M, Czeizel AE, Sorensen HT and Olsen J (2008). Antiepileptic drug use, folic acid supplementation, and congenital abnormalities: a population-based case-control study. British Journal ofGynaecology. 115: 98-103.
  • Werler MM, Ahrens KA, Bosco JL, Mitchell AA, Anderka MT, Gilboa SM, Holmes LB, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2011. Use of antiepileptic medications in pregnancy in relation to risks of birth defects. Ann Epidemiol 21:842–850.
  • Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N et al.; NEAD Study Group. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age. Brain 134(Pt 2), 396–404 (2011).
  • Reimers, A., Brodtkorb, E., 2012. Second-generation antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy: a guide for clinicians. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12(6), 707-717.
  • Omtzigt JGC, Los FJ, Grobbee DE, et al. The risk of spina bifida aperta after first-trimester exposure to valproate in a prenatal cohort. Neurology 1992;42(Suppl 5):119-25.
  • Koch S, Loesche G, Jager-Roman E, et al. Major and minor birth malformations and antiepileptic drugs. Neurology. 1992;42(Suppl 5): 83-8
  • Daly LE, Kirke PN, Molloy A, Weir DG, Scott JM. Folate levels and neural tube defects. Implication for prevention. JAMA 1995;274:1698e702.
  • Bramswig S, Prinz-Langenohl R, Lamers Y, et al. Supplementation with a multivitamin containing 800 microgram of folic acid shortens the time to reach the preventive red blood cell folate concentration in healthy women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2009; 79:61–70.

Verhoogd risico - Valproaat of valproïnezuur

  • AAP, DOMUS MEDICA (tijdens 1e trimester), SOCG, USPSTF
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Lammer EJ, Sever LE, Oakley GP Jr. 1987. Teratogen update: valproic acid. Teratology 35:465–473.
  • Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Neurology. 2003;61:S23-6.
  • Practice parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsia. 1998;39:1226-31. [PMID: 9821989]
  • Lindhout D, Schmidt D. In-utero exposure to valproate and neural tube defects. Lancet . 1986; 1: 1392–1393.
  • Lindhout D, Omtzigt JG, Cornel MC. Spectrum of neural tube defects in 34 infants prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs. Neurology . 1992; 42 (suppl 5): 111–118.

Medicatie: Carbamazepine

  • AAP, DOMUS MEDICA (tijdens 1e trimester), SOCG, USPSTF
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Hiilesmaa VK. Pregnancy and birth in women with epilepsy. Neurology . 1992; 42 (suppl 5): 8–11
  • Rosa F. Spina bifida in infants of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. N Engl J Med . 1991; 324: 674–677
  • Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Neurology. 2003;61:S23-6.
  • Practice parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsia. 1998;39:1226-31. [PMID: 9821989]"

Medicatie: Andere

  • Biale, Y., and H. Lewenthal. "Effect of folic acid supplementation on congenital malformations due to anticonvulsive drugs." European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 18.4 (1984): 211-216.

Gebrek aan evidentie bij normale dosis (geen effect)

  • Candito M, Naimi M, Boisson C, Rudigoz JC, Gaucherand P, Gueant JL, Luton D, Van Obberghen E. 2007. Plasma vitamin values and antiepileptic therapy: Case reports of pregnancy outcomes affected by a neural tube defect. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 79:62–64.     
  • Craig J, Morrison P, Morrow J, Patterson V. 1999. Failure of periconceptual folic acid to prevent a neural tube defect in the offspring of a mother taking sodium valproate. Seizure 8:253–254.           
  • Pittschieler S, Brezinka C, Jahn B, Trinka E, Unterberger I, Dobesberger J, Walser G, Auckenthaler A, Embacher N, Bauer G, Luef G. 2008. Spontaneous abortion and the prophylactic effect of folic acid supplementation in epileptic women undergoing antiepileptic therapy. J Neurol 255:1926–1931.           
  • Jentink J, Bakker MK, Nijenhuis CM, Wilffert B, de Jong-van den Berg LT. 2010. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 19:803–807.       
  • Morrow J, Hunt S, Russell A, Smithson W,Parsons L, Robertson I, Waddell R, Irwin B, Morrison P, Craig J. 2009. Folic acid use and major congenital malformations in offspring of women with epilepsy: A prospective study from the uk epilepsy and pregnancy register. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:506–511.                                         
  • Yerby MS. Management issues for women with epilepsy: neural tube defects and folic acid supplementation. Neurology. 2003;61:S23-6.
  • Practice parameter: management issues for women with epilepsy (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsia. 1998;39:1226-31. [PMID: 9821989]
  • Tomson T, Battino D, Bonizzoni E et al. EURAP study group. Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry. Lancet Neurol. 10(7),7–617 (2011).
  • Jentink J, Bakker M, Nijenhuis CM, Wilffert B and de Jong-van den Berg L (2010). Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 19: 803-807.
  • Ornoy A. 2009. Valproic acid in pregnancy: Howmuch are we endangering the embryo and fetus? Reprod Toxicol 28:1–10.  
  • Tomson, Torbjörn, and Dina Battino. "Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs." Seizure 17.2 (2008): 166-171.

Gebrek aan evidentie bij hoge dosis (geen effect)

  • Nambisan M, Wyszynski DF, Holmes LB. 2003. No evidence of a protective effect due to periconceptional folic acid (pcfa) intake on risk for congenital anomalies in the offspring of mothers exposed to antiepileptic drugs (aeds). Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 64:961–965. 
  • Wlodarczyk, B.J., Palacios, A.M., George, T.M., Finnell, R.H., 2012. Antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy outcomes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 158A(8), 2071-2090.                   
  • Yonkers KA, W+isner KL, Stowe Z, et al. Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:608-20.                
  • Tomson, Torbjörn, and Dina Battino. "Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs." Seizure 17.2 (2008): 166-171.

Verhoogd risico - Proguanil

  • NICE

Verhoogd risico - Malabsorptie (zoals coeliakie)

  • NICE
  • ROCG
  • SAPPG (inflammatoire darmziekten)
  • BNF 63 (2012) British National Formulary. 63rd edn. London: British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
  • DH (2000) Folic acid and the prevention of disease. No.50. London: Department of Health
  • Lawson JB. Anaemia in pregnancy. In: Lawson JB, Stewart DB editor(s). Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the Tropics and Developing Countries. London: Edward Arnold, 1988:76–8.
  • Shils ME,Olsen J, Shike M.1994. In: Shils M,Olson J, Shike M, Ross AC, editors.Modern nutrition in health and disease. 8th ed.Media, Pa.:Williams andWilkins. p 402–25.
  • Hendler S, Rorvik D. 2001. Supplement monographs. In: Hendler SS, Rorvik D, editor. PDR for nutritional supplements. 1st ed. Montvale, N.J.: Medical Economics. p 157–65.
  • Fitzpatrick A. 2003. (Folic acid): implications for health and disease. AGRO Food Industry hi-tech.May/June:45–8. Arcot J, Shrestha J. 2005. Folate: methods of analysis. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:253–66.
  • Murray M. 1996. Vitamins. In: Murray M, editor. Encyclopedia of nutritional supplements: the essential guide for improving your health naturally. 1st ed. Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing. p 119–26      
  • John, Seeniann, and Carl Hoegerl. "Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery." JAOA: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 109.11 (2009): 601-604
  • Mallory, Georgeann N., and Alex MC Macgregor. "Folate status following gastric bypass surgery (the great folate mystery)." Obesity surgery 1.1 (1991): 69-72
  • Kaska, Lukasz, et al. "Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery." ISRN Obesity 2013 (2013).
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • John, Seeniann, and Carl Hoegerl. "Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery." JAOA: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 109.11 (2009): 601-604
  • Mallory, Georgeann N., and Alex MC Macgregor. "Folate status following gastric bypass surgery (the great folate mystery)." Obesity surgery 1.1 (1991): 69-72
  • Kaska, Lukasz, et al. "Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery." ISRN Obesity 2013 (2013).

Basis voor malabsorptie (thalassemie, sikkelcelanemie) – hoger risico

  • NICE (thalassemie, sikkelcelanemie)
  • DOMUS MEDICA (Thalassemie)
  • Strong, J. and Rutherford, J.M. (2011) Anemia and white blood cell disorders. In: James, D., Steer, P.J., Weiner, C.P. et al. (Eds.) High risk pregnancy: management options. 4th edn. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders. 683-703.
  • Jans, Suze MPJ, Ank De Jonge, and A. L. M. Lagro‐Janssen. "Maternal and perinatal outcomes amongst haemoglobinopathy carriers: a systematic review." International journal of clinical practice 64.12 (2010): 1688-1698.
  • Cunningham FG, McDonald PC.Williams Obstetrics , 20th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing, 1997.
  • Danforth DN, Gibbs RS, Karlan BY, Haney AF (eds). Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology , 9th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
  • Lam, Y.H. and Tang, M.H.Y. (1999) Risk of neural tube defects in the offspring of thalassaemia carriers in Hong Kong Chinese. Prenatal Diagnosis 19(12), 1135-1137.
  • Ibba, R.M., Zoppi, M.A., Floris, M. et al. (2003) Neural tube defects in the offspring of thalassemia carriers. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 18(1), 5-7
  • Oteng-Ntim, E., Okpala, I. and Anionwy, E. (2003) Sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Current Obstetrics & Gynaecology 13(6), 362-368
  • Oteng-Ntim, E., Cottee, C, , Bewley, S. and Anionwu, E.N. (2006) Sickle cell disease in pregnancy. Current Obstetrics & Gynaecology 16(6), 353-360.
  • Lindenbaum J. Klipstein FA. Folic acid deficiency in sickle-cell anaemia. N Engl J Med 1963;269:875–82.
  • Charache S, Niebyl JR. Pregnancy in sickle cell disease. Clin Haematol 1985;14:729–46.

Verhoogd risico - Diabetes

  • AAP, ACOG, ADIPS, BCRCP, CDA , Domus Medica, Health Canada, NICE, RACGP, SAPPG, SIGN, SOCG, USPSTF, WHO
  • Balsells, Montserrat, et al. "Major congenital malformations in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta‐analysis." Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews 28.3 (2012): 252-257.
  • Becerra JE, Khoury MJ, Cordero JF, EricksonJD. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and the  risks for specific birth defects: a population-based case-control study. Pediatrics 1990;85:1-9.
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176
  • Sudchada, Patcharaporn, et al. "Effect of folic acid supplementation on plasma total homocysteine levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Diabetes research and clinical practice 98.1 (2012): 151-158.
  • NICE: Guideline Development Group. "Guidelines: management of diabetes from preconception to the postnatal period: summary of NICE guidance." BMJ: British Medical Journal 336.7646 (2008): 714.
  • Mahmud, Maimunah, and Danielle Mazza. "Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations." BMC women's health 10.1 (2010): 5.
  • Cutchie WA, Cheung NW, Simmons D: Comparison of international and New Zealand guidelines for the care of pregnant women with diabetes.Diabetic Medicine 2006 23(5):460-468.
  • Mulholland C, Njoroge T, Mersereau P, Williams J: Comparison of guidelines available in the united states for diagnosis and management of diabetes before, during, and after pregnancy. Journal of Womens Health 2007 16(6):790-801
  • Calonge, N., Petitti, D.B., DeWitt, T.G., Dietrich, A.J., Gregory, K.D., Grossman, D., Isham, G., LeFevre, M.L., Leipzig, R.M., Marion, L.N., 2009. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(9), 626-631.
  • Blom, H.J., 2009. Folic Acid, Methylation and Neural Tube Closure in Humans. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85(4), 295-302.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Hovdenak, N., Haram, K., 2012. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 164(2), 127-132.
  • CEMACH (2006) Important information for general practitioners and the primary care team: women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health. www.hqip.org.uk
  • Loeken MR. 2005. Current perspectives on the causes of neural tube defects resulting from diabetic pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 135:77–87.
  • Ray, Joel G., Tara E. O'brien, and Wee Shian Chan. "Preconception care and the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women with diabetes mellitus: a meta‐analysis." Qjm 94.8 (2001): 435-444.

Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (jeugddiabetes)                                                                           

  • AAP, SOCG
  • CEMACH (2006) Important information for general practitioners and the primary care team: women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health. www.hqip.org.uk
  • Gonzalez M, Schmitz K, Matos M, et al. Folate supplementation and neural tube defects: a review of a public health issue. P R Health Sci J 1997;16:387-93.
  • Aubard Y, Piver P, Chinchilla A, Baudet J. Folates en tube neural. Revue de la literature. J Gynaecol Obstet Reprod Paris 1997;26:576-84.
  • Tolmie J. Neural tube defects and other congenital malformations of the central nervous system. In: Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, eds. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1997:2145–2176
  • Chodirker BN, Cadrin C, Davies GAL, Summers AM, Wilson RD, Winsor EJT, et al. SOGC Genetics Committee Members, CCMG Prenatal Diagnosis Committee Members. Canadian guidelines for prenatal diagnosis. Genetic indications for prenatal diagnosis. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines, No 105, June 2001. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can 2001;23(6):525–31.
  • Van Allen MI, McCourt C, Lee NS. Preconception health: folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects. A resource document for health professionals, 2002. Ottawa, Ontario Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.
  • Kitzmiller, John L., et al. "Managing Preexisting Diabetes for Pregnancy Summary of evidence and consensus recommendations for care." Diabetes care 31.5 (2008): 1060-1079

Diabetes Mellitus type 1 en type 2                                                                   

  • DOMUS MEDICA, NICE
  • CEMACH (2006) Important information for general practitioners and the primary care team: women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health. www.hqip.org.uk

Verhoogd risico - Obesitas

  • CMACE/ROCG, Health Canada, NICE, ICSI, SAPPG, SOCG, USPSTF
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Hovdenak, N., Haram, K., 2012. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 164(2), 127-132.
  • Stothard KJ, Tennant PW, Bell R, Rankin J: Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2009; 301: 636–650.
  • Rasmussen SA, Chu SY, Kim SY, et al. Maternal obesity and risk of neural tube defects: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:611–619
  • Shaw GM, Velie EM, Schaffer D. 1996. Risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among obese women. JAMA 275:1093–1096.
  • Oddy WH, De Klerk NH, Miller M, Payne J, Bower C. Association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with birth defects: evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2009; 49:11–15
  • Ray JG, Wyatt PR, Vermeulen MJ, et al. Greater maternal weight and the ongoing risk of neural tube defects after folic acid flour fortification. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:261-5.
  • Carmichael, S.L., Rasmussen, S.A., Shaw, G.M., 2010. Prepregnancy Obesity: A Complex Risk Factor for Selected Birth Defects. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 88(10), 804-810.
  • Shaw GM, Velie EM, Schaffer D. 1996. Risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among obese women. JAMA 275:1093–1096.
  • Werler MM, Louik C, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA. 1996. Prepregnant weight in relation to risk of neural tube defects. JAMA 275:1089–1092.
  • Mojtabai R. Body mass index and serum folate in childbearing age women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:1029.
  • Becerra JE, Khoury MJ, Cordero JF, EricksonJD. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and the risks for specific birth defects: a population-based case-control study. Pediatrics 1990;85:1-9.
  • UKTIS (2011) Obesity in pregnancy. TOXBASEUK Teratology Information Service. www.uktis.org
  • CMACE/RCOG (2010) Management of women with obesity in pregnancy. Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. www.rcog.org.uk
  • Werler MM, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA. Prepregnant weight in relation to risk of occurrent neural tube defects. JAMA 1996;275:1089-92.
  • Watkins ML, Scanlon KS, Mulinare J, Khoury MJ.Is maternal obesity a risk factor for anencephaly and spina bifida? Epidemiology 1996;7:507-12.
  • Waller DK, Mills JL, Simpson JL, et al. Are obese women at higher risk for producing malformed offspring? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:541-8.
  • Berghella, V., Buchanan, E., Pereira, L., Baxter, J.K., 2010. Preconception Care. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 65(2), 119-131.
  • John, Seeniann, and Carl Hoegerl. "Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery." JAOA: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 109.11 (2009): 601-604
  • Mallory, Georgeann N., and Alex MC Macgregor. "Folate status following gastric bypass surgery (the great folate mystery)." Obesity surgery 1.1 (1991): 69-72
  • Kaska, Lukasz, et al. "Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery." ISRN Obesity 2013 (2013).
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.

Risicofactoren voor NBDs met onvoldoende bewijs om een verhoogde dosis te rechtvaardigen

  • NICE, ICSI, SOCG
  • BCFI, http://www.bcfi.be/GGR/MPG/MPG_NBG.cfm
  • Lawrence JM, Watkins ML, Chiu V, et al. Do racial and ethnic differences in serum folate values exist after food fortification with folic acid? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:520-26
  • Talaulikar, V.S., Arulkumaran, S., 2011. Folic Acid in Obstetric Practice: A Review. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 66(4), 240-247.
  • Ministry of Health. 2012. Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Children and Young People (Aged 2–18 years): A background paper. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
  • Ramakrishnan, U., Grant, F., Goldenberg, T., Zongrone, A., Martorell, R., 2012. Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 26(s1), 285-301
  • Czeizel, A.E., Banhidy, F., 2011. Vitamin supply in pregnancy for prevention of congenital birth defects. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 14(3), 291-296.
  • Groenen PMW, van Rooij IALM, Peer PGM, Ocke´ MC, Zielhuis GA, Steegers-Theunissen RPM. Low maternal dietary intakes of iron, magnesium, and niacin are associated with spina bifida in the offspring. J Nutr 2004;134:1516–1522.
  • Velie EM, Block G, Shaw GM, Samuels SJ, Schaffer DM, Kulldorff M. Maternal supplemental and dietary zinc intake and the occurrence of neural tube defects in California. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 150:605.
  • Moretti, Myla E., et al. "Maternal hyperthermia and the risk for neural tube defects in offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis." Epidemiology 16.2 (2005): 216-219.
  • Milunsky A, Ulcickas M, Rothman KJ, Willett W, Jick SS, Jick H. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. JAMA. 1992;268:882–886
  • Li Z, Liu J, Pei L, Zhang L, Guo Z, Li Z: Maternal flu or fever, medication use, and neural- tube defects: a population-based casecontrol study in Northern China. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2007; 79: 295–300.
  • Desrosiers, Tania A., et al. "Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during early pregnancy and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts." Occupational and environmental medicine 69.7 (2012): 493-499.
  • Nordby K-C, Andersen A, Irgens L and Kristensen P (2005). Indicators of mancozeb exposure in relation to thyroid cancer and neural tube defects in farmers' families. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. 31: (2). 89-96.
  • Botto LD, Moore CA, Khoury MJ, Erickson JD. Neural-tube defects. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1509-19.
  • Yang QH, Carter HK, Mulinare J, Berry RJ, Friedman JM, Erickson JD. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1409-16.   
  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “ACOG practice bulletin no. 105: bariatric surgery and pregnancy,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 1405–1413, 2009.
  • R. Kushner, “Managing the obese patient after bariatric surgery: a case report of severe malnutrition and review of the literature,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 126–132, 2000.
  • Kaska, Lukasz, et al. "Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery." ISRN Obesity 2013 (2013).
  • Edwards JE. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery. AWHONN lifelines / Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. 2005;9(5):388-93.
  • Hutson JR, Stade B, Lehotay DC, Collier CP, Kapur BM. Folic acid transport to the human fetus is decreased in pregnancies with chronic alcohol exposure. PloS one. 2012;7(5).